The Little Prince
Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry
A. Biographical Information
B. Bibliographical Information
Title: The Little Prince
Publication: First published in English translation in 1943. The first French edition did not appear until 1946.
Place: Reynal & Hitchcock, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. (U.S. edition, both French and English); Gallimard (French edition)
Author: Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
WORD PAGE/LINE DEFINITION SENTENCE
disheartened Page 4; line 5 Being disappointed about something and have less confidence or less hope about it than you did before. Ephraim was disheartened by their hostile reaction.
apparition Page 5; line 21 Someone you see or you think but who is not really there as a physical being Nina is having an apparition about her mother who is currently missing.
Absurd Page 6; line 10 Criticizing someone or something that it ridiculous or that it does not make sense It is absurd to be discussing compulsory redundancy policies for teachers.
impenetrable Page 9; line 18 It means it is impossible or very difficult to get through The Caucus range is almost an impenetrable barrier between Europe and Asia.
geraniums Page 12; Line 10 It is a plant with red, pink or white flowers. Their house is full of geraniums.
Abruptly Page 15; line 5 It means very sudden, often in a way which is unpleasant. He stopped abruptly and looked my way.
relentlessly: Page 22; line 5 It means never stops or never becomes less intense. The pressure now was relentless.
coquettish Page 23: line 16 A playful way that is intended to attract others She gives the guy a coquettish glance.
remorse Page 24; line 33 A strong feeling of sadness and regret about something wrong that you have done. He was full of remorse.
dejection Page 27; line 23 It is a feeling of sadness that you get from situations such as disappointments. There was a slight air of dejection about her.
ermine Page 29; line 3 It is expensive white fur that comes from small animals called stoats. Lara gets those millions of ermine in the cave of stoats.
B. ANALYSIS PROPER
Place: The Sahara Desert and outer space
Time: “Six years ago,” although the current date is never specified
The book is not set in a particular period or in one specific place. In the first chapter the narrator writes about his childhood experiences with drawings and about his low opinion of adults. In the second chapter the narrator starts narrating a particular series of incidents. He writes of the time when his plane crashed in the desert of Sahara six years ago. Most of the narrative after the second chapter is set in the desert. The other places that function as settings include the asteroid where the Little Prince has his home and the planets that the Little Prince visits, including asteroids 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, and 330. The last planet that he visits is the Earth, where he meets the narrator in the Sahara Desert. The story is really about the narrator’s friendship with the Little Prince and about the Prince’s own quest, which takes him to seven planets apart from his own.
A. Major (Protagonist and Antagonist)
NAME ROLE DESCRIPTION/CHARACTERIZATION
The little prince He is the main character of the story and one of the two protagonists of the story. The little prince comes from asteroid B612, a tiny planet in space. He leaves his planet in search of knowledge and wisdom, and also to get away from his flower. He travels to 7 planets, and on the last planet, the earth, he learns the secret of life from the fox and teaches the narrator that one must be responsible for the things that you tame.
The pilot He is the one who is telling the story. The narrator loves to draw, but he abandoned drawing at the age of 6 because nobody understood his drawings. Hence, he decided to become a pilot. One day, he flew his air plane over the Sahara Desert, but suddenly his engine broke, and he landed in the desert. Here, he meets the little prince and he learns from the prince the secret of life. The narrator shows the prince his drawings, but is surprised that the little prince knows what each drawing represents. From the experience with the little prince, the narrator sees the difference between children and adults, and he finds in himself, the children within.
The Rose She is the simple but yet so vain flower in the story. The flower lives on the planet of the little prince. She is a conceited and arrogant flower that seems to think that the world revolves around her. She also nags the little prince all the time and asks him to take very good care of her. However, inside, she deeply loves the little prince and despite her arrogance, she realizes that she was the one that caused the little prince to leave the planet.
The Fox The friend of the Little Prince. The fox in “le petit prince” is depicted as a very wise creature. He knows the secret of life, which he gives to the little prince as a present: “the essential is invisible to the eye, one can only see clearly with the heart.” When he first meets the little prince, he’s shy and timid, but then he’s willing to sacrifice his freedom for the little prince to tame him. The fox feels that when the little prince tames him, he will be happy because he will no longer be like the one million other foxes that the little prince will see; he will be unique to the little prince.
The Snake The first character the prince meets on Earth, who ultimately sends the prince back to the heavens by biting him. A constant enigma, the snake speaks in riddles and evokes the snake of the Bible, which incites Adam and Eve’s eviction from Eden by luring them into eating the forbidden fruit.
NAME ROLE DESCRIPTION/CHARACTERIZATION
Businessman He is the man that the little prince had a conversation and the little prince explains to the businessman that he is of no use at all to the stars that he owns. The businessman is also known as “Mr. Cramoisi” or “Mr. Red” because according to the little prince, he’s too serious. The businessman works all the time keeping track of how many stars he has in his possession. He hates distractions and the little prince would be his third distraction.
King The king insists upon his authority being respected and does not tolerate disobedience; however, since he is a very good man, he makes his orders reasonable. The king lives on a tiny planet that is almost completely covered by his magnificent long flowing robe. The little prince visits him, but he automatically labels the prince as his subject and gives him ridiculous orders like, “do not yawn” or “be a minister”. He is very arrogant and believes that he rules over the universe including the stars and the planets. Of course, the little prince thinks he is very foolish because no one can rule the whole universe.
(The Tippler) The tippler lives on asteroid 327. When the Prince asks him what he is doing, the tippler replies that he is drinking to forget that he is ashamed of drinking. The drunkard is a sad and lonesome soul that lives on a tiny planet by himself. He drinks to forget that he’s ashamed of drinking. It’s like a vicious cycle.
(The Conceited Man) He does not listen to anything but praise and expects the Little Prince to praise and admire him. The clown wants attention all the time and he asks the little prince to clap for him whenever he salutes by taking his hat off. He says that he’s the most wonderful, funny, and admired person in the world and he also loves compliments.
The Turkish Astronomer The narrator mentions the Turkish astronomer in the fourth chapter. The narrator believes that the planet from which the Little Prince has come is the asteroid known as B-612. A Turkish astronomer first sees this asteroid through the telescope in 1909.
The Street Lighter (The Lamplighter) The lamplighter lives on asteroid 329 and does the job of lighting and then putting out the lamplight. The lamplighter thinks that his is a terrible profession, because once every minute he has to light the lamp, for his planet makes a complete turn every sixty seconds. The street lighter turns on and off the street light that he has on his planet. Whenever he turns the light on, a new life is born, and the sun rises. Whenever he turns off the light, someone dies, and the sun sets.
Geographer The geographer lives on a planet that is ten times larger than the lamplighter’s planet. He explains that he is a scholar who knows the location of all the seas, rivers, towns, mountains, and deserts. The geographer draws maps in his atlas. He asks the little prince to describe his planet to him so he can draw it, but when the little prince tells him about his flower, he tells the little prince that he cannot draw it because flowers are “ephemeral”, meaning, they don’t last forever. The little prince is saddened by this because he did not know that his flower could die.
Merchant The Prince asks the merchant why he sells pills that quench thirst. The merchant answers that he sells them because they save a lot of time. The Prince feels that he would rather use that time to walk at leisure toward a spring of fresh water. The merchant sells pills that would replace water. If you’re thirsty, then all you have to do is take a pill and you will not need to drink water. He says by doing this, you will save 53 minutes every year from drinking water. The little prince thinks this is ridiculous and he thinks if he had 53 minutes, he would walk to a fresh water fountain.
Train person (The Railway Switchman) The Prince meets the railway switchman on Earth. This person sends trains off in different directions. He says that children are lucky because they know what they are looking for, unlike adults, who travel from place to place looking for things.
Garden of Roses The Prince meets a garden of roses on the planet Earth. He is overcome with sadness on seeing them because there are five thousand of them in a single garden. His flower has told him that it was the only one of its kind in the universe. He cries when he realizes that his flower has lied to him.
The Desert Flower The Prince meets a flower in the desert. It tells him that there are only six or seven men in existence and that one never knows where to find them. According to the flower, the wind blows the men away.
The story begins when the narrator depicts his childhood, when he drew many creative pictures and showed them to adults but was dismayed by their unsophisticated comments. He says he then gave up his potential career of an artist and putting his creativity to use, and instead became a pilot, because it was what the adults believed was sensible. One day, his plane crashes and lands in the middle of the Sahara Desert. There he meets the little prince, who instructs him to draw a sheep. Learning pieces about the strange prince through their conversations, the narrator pilot finds his little friend has come from an asteroid, B-612. The little prince took great care of his asteroid, preventing baobabs – destructive plants – and other unwanted things from destroying his home. One day, a rose appears on his asteroid, and as he cares for it most deeply, thinking she is the most wonderful, special creature ever – he is depressed to assume that she does not love him back. The little prince then leaves his asteroid and rose.
As he lands on many asteroids, each one is occupied by a different adult. First, he meets the king, a man attempting to rule over the universe and the stars. The monarch, however, does not realize the will of his presumed subjects, who do not even know they are being ‘ruled’ over because of natural instincts. He covers up his lack of understanding for these things by saying, “‘Accepted authority rests first of all on reason. If you ordered your people to go and throw themselves into the sea, they would rise up in revolution. I have the right to require obedience because my orders are reasonable.'” As he continues his journey, he meets more and more seemingly pathetic people – a conceited man who believes the little prince is only an admirer; a tippler who is attempting to drink his problems away; a businessman too busy to stop his work for anything; a lamplighter who does nothing but light his lamp, day and night; and a geographer who cannot complete his work because there is no explorer.
Next, the little prince goes to earth, where he meets a snake, who is very much pleased in the prince’s company because of his innocence and honesty in all matters, and says his bite can send them back to their homes (where they truly belong). He then finds a flower; an echo, of which he believes is mocking him; many roses (which depress him, because the rose on his planet had told him she was the only one of her kind in the universe); and a fox, whom he befriends and attempts to tame. He also meets some humans, who seem highly peculiar to him – a railway switchman who is unsatisfied, and knows people are unsatisfied, except for children, who are the only ones that know what they are looking for; and a merchant, who sells pills that, will quench thirst and save valuable time.
This is the end of the little prince’s told story, the part where he ends up in the desert with the narrator pilot. They finally find a well to quench their thirst, and share an understanding moment when they both know that people no longer see what is most important in life but lead mechanical, empty lives. However, the little prince misses his homeland dreadfully, and finds the snake to bite him and send him back to his asteroid. Before he leaves, he gives the narrator a gift of “laughing stars,” something no one else in the universe has. The narrator, with his newfound friend and outlook on life, then proceeds to examine the lovely and sad landscape of the desert and the lone star of the little prince, shining in the night sky.
The climax of the plot occurs when the Little Prince decides to return to his planet and care for his special flower. He has learned from the fox that the important things in life cannot be seen with the eye, only felt with the heart. This lesson eventually makes the Little Prince realize that the flower from which he has fled is really very special. After meeting the narrator and explaining all that he has learned since he left his planet, the Prince accepts that he really loves the flower because she is his responsibility, and he has invested time and trouble in her survival. As a result, he decides that he must go back to his star to take care of his special rose.
e. POINT OF VIEW
The narrator gives a first-person account, although he spends large portions of the story recounting the little prince’s own story of his travels. It is actually told through first-person, in the words of the narrator who gets stranded in the Sahara desert. Although parts of the story tend to sound as if they are being told in an omniscient style, like when the Little Prince ventures from the various asteroids, the telling of these experiences is based on what the narrator has learned while he is with the Little Prince himself. For example, at one part, when the narrator describes his situation: “I realized clearly that something extraordinary was happening. I was holding him close in my arms as if he were a little child; and yet it seemed to me that he was rushing headlong toward an abyss from which I could do nothing to restrain him…” That is a line that would only appear in the narration of a first-person point of view story.
The mood is mostly adventurous and mysterious, with a philosophical overtone. At first the Little Prince does not reveal his identity, creating an initial sense of mystery. Then as the Little Prince recounts his travels, the mood becomes adventurous. As he questions the fox and the narrator, the mood becomes philosophic. At the end, when the Prince arranges to be bitten by the snake, the mood again becomes mysterious. Although he seems to die from the snake bite, the narrator cannot find the Prince’s body when he looks for it the next morning. He can only assume that the Prince successfully returns to his star.
g. MORAL OF THE STORY
The story talks about values in life. These are values that usually grown-ups ignore and only children can understand. The moral of the story is too seeing not only with the use of your eyes but with your eyes. We usually ignore simple things in life because we are focusing on our wants that we thought are our needs. We usually disregard the fact that we can only find true happiness if we are going to be contented on what we have. We must know the true meaning of life. No stress. No Pressure. Just Happiness.
In this story, the ending is so tragic that the narrator must suffer from snake’s bite and the little prince vanished from nowhere.
In The Little Prince, Saint-Exupéry explains the importance of seeing the whole truth in order to find beauty. He believes that visible things are only shells that hint at the real worth hidden inside. He points out that man has not learned to look beneath the surface, or perhaps, has forgotten how to do so. Because adults never look inside, they will never know themselves or others.
All his life, Saint-Exupéry thought that grown-ups cared mostly about inconsequential matters, such as golf and neckties. When they talked about important matters, they always became dull and boring. They seemed afraid to open up their hearts to the real issues of life; instead, they chose to function on a surface level.
In the book, the fox teaches that one can see only what is important in life by looking with the heart. Because of this lesson, Saint-Exupéry leaves the desert as a different person. He has accepted the Little Prince’s thought that “’the stars are beautiful because of a flower that cannot be seen.” In essence, the fox’s lesson is about how to love, a most important lesson for everybody to learn. The fox points out that it is the time that one “wastes” on someone or something that makes it important. The fox also tells the readers that love can overcome existentialism: “One only knows the things that one tames…. Men buy things already made in the stores. But as there are no stores where friends can be bought, men no
longer have friends.” A human must earn a friendship, not buy it.
Finally, Saint-Exupéry explains how all joy and pleasure must be earned, not given or received. As an example, he shows the joy that the Little Prince and the pilot feel when they taste the water from the well. Its sweetness comes from their journey under the stars and the work of the pilot’s arms making the pulley sing. In the end, the Little Prince again experiences a new joy. Leaving his “shell” behind, he has gone to the most beautiful place he can imagine — his star, which is his love; he has returned to his own little heaven.
Saint-Exupéry scorns man’s obsession with the wrong things, such as wealth, power, and technology; he uses the King, the Businessman, and the Lamplighter to highlight this theme. The king puts a great deal of importance into being obeyed, even though he orders only what would happen anyway. The businessman takes great pride in owning all the stars, but he is too busy counting them to gain any pleasure from their beauty. The Little Prince tries to teach him the pointlessness of his “property.” The Little Prince also scorns the Lamplighter’s fascination with science and technology. He is so caught up in the importance of lighting his lamp, that he misses what is important in life.
The need to have faith is another minor theme in the book. The Little Prince arrives on the Earth during a spiritually troubled phase and stays until he has resolved his confusions. During his stay, he teaches the narrator the importance of having faith and belief. Many critics have called the Little Prince a Christ-figure, for he is described as being free of sin. He also believes in a life after death. At the end of the book, he returns to his star, his heaven.
The little prince can be read on two different levels. It’s a children’s book, yet each and every character brings a universal message. The story is about the “beautiful and sad passage of the world”, in that adults cannot appreciate the things that children do even though they were once children. I have listed some of the characters and things in the book and what they symbolize.
King – the king is depicted a self-centered person who thinks highly of himself. However, this superiority brings only loneliness to him and causes people, like the little prince to leave him. He thinks he knows everything and possesses everything, but in truth, he is very ignorant of the world beyond his miniature planet. The king represents people in our society who think of themselves as superior beings. They don’t listen to other’s opinions and disregard the consequences of their actions. In the end, all they get is disrespect instead of the respect that they believe they should have.
Clown (conceited man) – the clown, like the king, is also very conceited. However, unlike the king, he is so self-indulged that he lives his life looking for admirers. The clown is like a blind person who cannot see the beauty of the world because he is so focused on himself. He also does not recognize faults within himself because he’s so self-absorbed. For a person to be respected and admired, one needs to contribute to the world or to make a difference in someone’s life. The clown does neither. He is living a life that is meaningless and full of lies because he fully believes that he’s the most wonderful person in the world, even though he did nothing to build his reputation. Hence, one cannot judge a person by their appearance or by the way the talk. One can only judge a person by the things they do and don’t do.
The Flower – flowers blossom from tiny sprouts which grow from tiny seeds under the earth. Throughout the life of a flower, it changes and grows and blossoms. The flower in the story grows like this too, except she grows to becoming more mature and caring. At the beginning she nags the little prince all the time and orders him to do stuff for her. She’s seems very conceited, but when the little prince leaves, she feels very sad and thinks that it is her fault that he little prince is leaving. The flower to the prince, is the treasure and the “essential” that one can only see with the heart. He finally learns to appreciate her because he has lost her. The flower can be compared to mothers. Mothers nag their children all the time to pick their clothes, make the bed, take the trash out, and perform different duties. However, their intentions are good. They care deeply for their children and keep a roof over their children’s heads even though they might seem unfair or annoying at times. It is when we lose our moms, that we will realize their importance in our lives.
The little prince – the little prince represent innocence, ignorance, and purity. When the prince goes to visit the people on the planets, he cannot understand them and thinks that they are very bizarre. He wonders why the businessman counts the stars because he doesn’t do anything with the starts except “possess” them. He also does not understand why his flower is “ephemeral”, and that he will lose her one day because she will die. These truths remain unclear throughout his journey because he is innocent. He cannot see the reality of the world around him, nor can he understand the mind of the adults. When he meets the snake, the snake does not bite him because he is so pure. The little prince does not know the dangers that a snake represents and so he talks to it just like he did to the fox. His mind is unadulterated by evil, money, and greed like the mind of adults are. Furthermore, he can see what adults don’t. For example, he finally understands the importance of the flower to him because she is unique to him and he is to her. Hence, he must protect and care for her. Adults don’t understand things like this: they don’t know why a flower would ever be as important as money or fame, nor would they care if a flower died and the stars cried. The prince brings back childhood memories into the life of the narrator that he has long forgotten. He teaches the narrator to be responsible for those you love and have tamed, and to be yourself even though no one is listening to you. The little prince also teaches us that the best things in the world aren’t necessarily the most expensive, the rarest, the fanciest, but the things that we see and can enjoy everyday like friends and family.
The Businessman – the business man represents the perfect adult because his mind is only occupied by numbers. As we grow up, our interests change because of what society demands of us. We must take responsibility and earn a living. Hence, we can no longer be a child and play with toys or play on playground.
C. General Comment
“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves, and it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them.”–The Little Prince
“The little prince returns to his planet, finally understanding love, uniqueness, and diversity in a broader and fuller sense.”
If I were to suggest only one book for adults to read, this would be the title. I’m sure you can argue why this is the wrong decision, but this is my personal opinion and I’m sticking by it. Even throughout your teenage years, embarking on becoming an adult, you forget what it’s like to be a child. This book is the perfect reminder that there is more to life than numbers, appearances or power.
The story is about an adventurous travel of a little prince that could teach a lot of lessons to every reader. It is good book that adults must read because of the idea that in this world we are blinded by different things that we thought are important for our lifestyle and existence on this world yet we are missing the real things that could give us extreme happiness and sad to say we, especially the grown-ups, realize it when they are going to die. I have fun reading the books because of some humorous events. I was entertained by the little prince as well as his travel from different planets where he met a lot of people that I could say a representation of people in our world. Lastly, I enjoy the pictures in this book (haha) especially the drawings of the narrator.
III. Biography of the Author
Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry
1900 29 June: birth of Antoine Jean-Baptiste Marie Roger de Saint-Exupéry, third of five children born to Jean de Saint-Exupéry, insurance inspector, and Marie de Fonscolombe. The Saint-Exupéry name appears in the Crusades Hall in Versailles.
1904 Death of Jean de Saint-Exupéry.
1904-1917 Pupil at the Jesuit school of Notre-Dame de Sainte-Croix in Le Mans, and the Saint-Jean de Fribourg school in Switzerland. In 1912, during his summer holidays, Antoine experiences his maiden flight from the Ambérieu en Bugey aerodrome.
1917 – June: Saint-Exupéry passes his baccalaureate exam.
– July: death of younger brother François.
– Saint-Exupéry prepares to sit the Naval Academy entrance examination in a higher maths class at the Lycée Saint-Louis preparatory school in Paris, and then at the Lycée Lakanal in Sceaux.
1919 After passing the written entrance exam for the Naval Academy, Saint-Exupéry fails the oral exam.
1920 Student at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (architecture department).
1921-1923 – 1921: national service in the 2nd Aviation regiment in Strasbourg. Saint-Exupéry is awarded his civil and military pilot’s licence.
– 1922: promoted to sub-lieutenant, assigned to the 34th Aviation regiment at Le Bourget.
– January 1923: involved in a plane crash at Le Bourget (fractured skull). Saint-Exupéry leaves the armed forces.
1923-1925 Engagement, broken off after 3 months, to Louise de Vilmorin. Saint-Exupéry works as production inspector at the Tuileries de Boiron tile factory, then as a salesman for Saurer trucks.
1926 – 1 April: his short story L’Aviateur (The Aviator) is published in the magazine Le Navire d’Argent.
– October: hired by the Compagnie Latécoère, which would later become l’Aéropostale, flying between Toulouse and Dakar and later, from 1928 onwards, as far as Buenos Aires, then Santiago, Chile, and Tierra del Fuego.
1927 October: appointed head of the Cap Juby airfield in the south of Morocco; writes Courrier Sud (Southern Mail).
1929 – appointed director of Aeropostal Argentina and moves to Buenos Aires.
– Courrier Sud published by Gallimard.
1930 June: Guillaumet’s plane crash-lands in the Andes. Saint-Exupéry makes numerous attempted rescue flights. Guillaumet successfully crosses the mountains on foot to safety.
1931 – April: marries Consuelo Suncin (1902-1979), Salvadorian by birth but with Argentine nationality.
– May to December: Saint-Exupéry pilots night flights on the Casablanca-Port Etienne line.
– Vol de Nuit (Night Flight) published by Gallimard, wins the Femina prize.
1932-1933 Based in Casablanca then, after the collapse of l’Aéropostale, he signed on as a test pilot to help with the financial difficulties that were to dog him throughout his life. Splashes down in the bay of Saint-Raphaël.
1934-1935 Once again based in Paris, Saint-Exupéry travels to North African and Indochina. Newspaper Paris-Soir sends him as correspondent to Moscow. Takes part in the attempt on the Paris-Saigon speed record, resulting in another accident: his plane comes down in the middle of the desert, 200 kilometres from Cairo.
1936 – Newspaper L’Intransigeant sends him to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War.
– Saint-Exupéry writes the screenplay based on Courrier Sud. Pierre Bion directs the film.
1937 – At the request of Air France, Saint-Exupéry scouts a possible air route between Casablanca and Timbuktu.
– Writes the screenplay of Anne-Marie.
– October to November: Saint-Exupéry registers four patents (out of a total of a dozen registered up to 1944).
1938 – January: travels to the United States.
– February: sets off to fly from New York to Tierra del Fuego, yet another accident in Guatemala (seven fractures to the skull).
1939 – February: Terre des Hommes (Wind, Sand and Stars) published by Gallimard, wins the Académie Française Grand Prix du Roman novel-writing prize.
– September: called up in Toulouse as a flying instructor, he talks his way into a transfer to the 2/33 reconnaissance squadron based at Orconte. Saint-Exupéry flies high-risk missions. Continuing into 1940, his missions, particularly over Arras, inspire the story of his next novel, Pilote de Guerre (Flight to Arras).
1940 – 2/33 Squadron falls back to Algiers.
– After demobilisation, Saint-Exupéry finally leaves in December for the United States.
1942 – Pilote de Guerre published in France (where the book is banned by the Vichy government) at the same time as its English translation, Flight to Arras, in the USA.
– Summer/autumn: Saint-Exupéry writes and illustrates Le Petit Prince, dedicated to his friend Léon Werth.
1943 – April: publishers Reynal & Hitchcock publish Le Petit Prince simultaneously in french and in english translation.
– May: Saint-Exupéry returns to Algeria to rejoin 2/33 Squadron, now part of the Free French forces. Because of his age, he has difficulty convincing the authorities to let him fly.
1944 – The squadron transfers to Corsica. Saint-Exupéry is made its commander. He is authorised to fly five missions, and in fact flies eight.
– 31 July: For his ninth mission, Saint-Exupéry is sent on a reconnaissance flight in preparation for the Allied landings in the South of France. His plane is shot down by a German fighter pilot and lost at sea.
1948 Citadelle (The Wisdom of the Sands) published posthumously.
1998 Off the coast of Marseilles, Jean-Claude Bianco, a fisherman, picks up in its nets an identity bracelet bearing Saint-Exupéry’s name.
2000-2003 The wreck of a P-38 Lightning is found near the Ile de Riou. The serial number on the body identifies the plane as the one Saint-Exupéry was flying on his last mission.