LITTLE PRINCE

Book Review

The Little Prince

Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry

I. Preliminaries

A. Biographical Information

B. Bibliographical Information

Title: The Little Prince
Publication: First published in English translation in 1943. The first French edition did not appear until 1946.
Year: 1943
Place: Reynal & Hitchcock, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. (U.S. edition, both French and English); Gallimard (French edition)
Author: Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

II. Body
A. VOCABULARY
WORD PAGE/LINE DEFINITION SENTENCE
disheartened Page 4; line 5 Being disappointed about something and have less confidence or less hope about it than you did before. Ephraim was disheartened by their hostile reaction.
apparition Page 5; line 21 Someone you see or you think but who is not really there as a physical being Nina is having an apparition about her mother who is currently missing.
Absurd Page 6; line 10 Criticizing someone or something that it ridiculous or that it does not make sense It is absurd to be discussing compulsory redundancy policies for teachers.
impenetrable Page 9; line 18 It means it is impossible or very difficult to get through The Caucus range is almost an impenetrable barrier between Europe and Asia.
geraniums Page 12; Line 10 It is a plant with red, pink or white flowers. Their house is full of geraniums.
Abruptly Page 15; line 5 It means very sudden, often in a way which is unpleasant. He stopped abruptly and looked my way.
relentlessly: Page 22; line 5 It means never stops or never becomes less intense. The pressure now was relentless.
coquettish Page 23: line 16 A playful way that is intended to attract others She gives the guy a coquettish glance.
remorse Page 24; line 33 A strong feeling of sadness and regret about something wrong that you have done. He was full of remorse.
dejection Page 27; line 23 It is a feeling of sadness that you get from situations such as disappointments. There was a slight air of dejection about her.
ermine Page 29; line 3 It is expensive white fur that comes from small animals called stoats. Lara gets those millions of ermine in the cave of stoats.

B. ANALYSIS PROPER
a. Setting:
Place: The Sahara Desert and outer space
Time: “Six years ago,” although the current date is never specified

The book is not set in a particular period or in one specific place. In the first chapter the narrator writes about his childhood experiences with drawings and about his low opinion of adults. In the second chapter the narrator starts narrating a particular series of incidents. He writes of the time when his plane crashed in the desert of Sahara six years ago. Most of the narrative after the second chapter is set in the desert. The other places that function as settings include the asteroid where the Little Prince has his home and the planets that the Little Prince visits, including asteroids 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, and 330. The last planet that he visits is the Earth, where he meets the narrator in the Sahara Desert. The story is really about the narrator’s friendship with the Little Prince and about the Prince’s own quest, which takes him to seven planets apart from his own.

b. Characters
A. Major (Protagonist and Antagonist)
NAME ROLE DESCRIPTION/CHARACTERIZATION
PROTAGONIST
The little prince He is the main character of the story and one of the two protagonists of the story. The little prince comes from asteroid B612, a tiny planet in space. He leaves his planet in search of knowledge and wisdom, and also to get away from his flower. He travels to 7 planets, and on the last planet, the earth, he learns the secret of life from the fox and teaches the narrator that one must be responsible for the things that you tame.
The pilot He is the one who is telling the story. The narrator loves to draw, but he abandoned drawing at the age of 6 because nobody understood his drawings. Hence, he decided to become a pilot. One day, he flew his air plane over the Sahara Desert, but suddenly his engine broke, and he landed in the desert. Here, he meets the little prince and he learns from the prince the secret of life. The narrator shows the prince his drawings, but is surprised that the little prince knows what each drawing represents. From the experience with the little prince, the narrator sees the difference between children and adults, and he finds in himself, the children within.
ANATAGONIST
The Rose She is the simple but yet so vain flower in the story. The flower lives on the planet of the little prince. She is a conceited and arrogant flower that seems to think that the world revolves around her. She also nags the little prince all the time and asks him to take very good care of her. However, inside, she deeply loves the little prince and despite her arrogance, she realizes that she was the one that caused the little prince to leave the planet.
The Fox The friend of the Little Prince. The fox in “le petit prince” is depicted as a very wise creature. He knows the secret of life, which he gives to the little prince as a present: “the essential is invisible to the eye, one can only see clearly with the heart.” When he first meets the little prince, he’s shy and timid, but then he’s willing to sacrifice his freedom for the little prince to tame him. The fox feels that when the little prince tames him, he will be happy because he will no longer be like the one million other foxes that the little prince will see; he will be unique to the little prince.
The Snake The first character the prince meets on Earth, who ultimately sends the prince back to the heavens by biting him. A constant enigma, the snake speaks in riddles and evokes the snake of the Bible, which incites Adam and Eve’s eviction from Eden by luring them into eating the forbidden fruit.

B. Minor:
NAME ROLE DESCRIPTION/CHARACTERIZATION
Businessman He is the man that the little prince had a conversation and the little prince explains to the businessman that he is of no use at all to the stars that he owns. The businessman is also known as “Mr. Cramoisi” or “Mr. Red” because according to the little prince, he’s too serious. The businessman works all the time keeping track of how many stars he has in his possession. He hates distractions and the little prince would be his third distraction.
King The king insists upon his authority being respected and does not tolerate disobedience; however, since he is a very good man, he makes his orders reasonable. The king lives on a tiny planet that is almost completely covered by his magnificent long flowing robe. The little prince visits him, but he automatically labels the prince as his subject and gives him ridiculous orders like, “do not yawn” or “be a minister”. He is very arrogant and believes that he rules over the universe including the stars and the planets. Of course, the little prince thinks he is very foolish because no one can rule the whole universe.
Drunkard
(The Tippler) The tippler lives on asteroid 327. When the Prince asks him what he is doing, the tippler replies that he is drinking to forget that he is ashamed of drinking. The drunkard is a sad and lonesome soul that lives on a tiny planet by himself. He drinks to forget that he’s ashamed of drinking. It’s like a vicious cycle.
Clown
(The Conceited Man) He does not listen to anything but praise and expects the Little Prince to praise and admire him. The clown wants attention all the time and he asks the little prince to clap for him whenever he salutes by taking his hat off. He says that he’s the most wonderful, funny, and admired person in the world and he also loves compliments.
The Turkish Astronomer The narrator mentions the Turkish astronomer in the fourth chapter. The narrator believes that the planet from which the Little Prince has come is the asteroid known as B-612. A Turkish astronomer first sees this asteroid through the telescope in 1909.
The Street Lighter (The Lamplighter) The lamplighter lives on asteroid 329 and does the job of lighting and then putting out the lamplight. The lamplighter thinks that his is a terrible profession, because once every minute he has to light the lamp, for his planet makes a complete turn every sixty seconds. The street lighter turns on and off the street light that he has on his planet. Whenever he turns the light on, a new life is born, and the sun rises. Whenever he turns off the light, someone dies, and the sun sets.
Geographer The geographer lives on a planet that is ten times larger than the lamplighter’s planet. He explains that he is a scholar who knows the location of all the seas, rivers, towns, mountains, and deserts. The geographer draws maps in his atlas. He asks the little prince to describe his planet to him so he can draw it, but when the little prince tells him about his flower, he tells the little prince that he cannot draw it because flowers are “ephemeral”, meaning, they don’t last forever. The little prince is saddened by this because he did not know that his flower could die.
Merchant The Prince asks the merchant why he sells pills that quench thirst. The merchant answers that he sells them because they save a lot of time. The Prince feels that he would rather use that time to walk at leisure toward a spring of fresh water. The merchant sells pills that would replace water. If you’re thirsty, then all you have to do is take a pill and you will not need to drink water. He says by doing this, you will save 53 minutes every year from drinking water. The little prince thinks this is ridiculous and he thinks if he had 53 minutes, he would walk to a fresh water fountain.
Train person (The Railway Switchman) The Prince meets the railway switchman on Earth. This person sends trains off in different directions. He says that children are lucky because they know what they are looking for, unlike adults, who travel from place to place looking for things.
Garden of Roses The Prince meets a garden of roses on the planet Earth. He is overcome with sadness on seeing them because there are five thousand of them in a single garden. His flower has told him that it was the only one of its kind in the universe. He cries when he realizes that his flower has lied to him.
The Desert Flower The Prince meets a flower in the desert. It tells him that there are only six or seven men in existence and that one never knows where to find them. According to the flower, the wind blows the men away.

c. PLOT
The story begins when the narrator depicts his childhood, when he drew many creative pictures and showed them to adults but was dismayed by their unsophisticated comments. He says he then gave up his potential career of an artist and putting his creativity to use, and instead became a pilot, because it was what the adults believed was sensible. One day, his plane crashes and lands in the middle of the Sahara Desert. There he meets the little prince, who instructs him to draw a sheep. Learning pieces about the strange prince through their conversations, the narrator pilot finds his little friend has come from an asteroid, B-612. The little prince took great care of his asteroid, preventing baobabs – destructive plants – and other unwanted things from destroying his home. One day, a rose appears on his asteroid, and as he cares for it most deeply, thinking she is the most wonderful, special creature ever – he is depressed to assume that she does not love him back. The little prince then leaves his asteroid and rose.
As he lands on many asteroids, each one is occupied by a different adult. First, he meets the king, a man attempting to rule over the universe and the stars. The monarch, however, does not realize the will of his presumed subjects, who do not even know they are being ‘ruled’ over because of natural instincts. He covers up his lack of understanding for these things by saying, “‘Accepted authority rests first of all on reason. If you ordered your people to go and throw themselves into the sea, they would rise up in revolution. I have the right to require obedience because my orders are reasonable.'” As he continues his journey, he meets more and more seemingly pathetic people – a conceited man who believes the little prince is only an admirer; a tippler who is attempting to drink his problems away; a businessman too busy to stop his work for anything; a lamplighter who does nothing but light his lamp, day and night; and a geographer who cannot complete his work because there is no explorer.
Next, the little prince goes to earth, where he meets a snake, who is very much pleased in the prince’s company because of his innocence and honesty in all matters, and says his bite can send them back to their homes (where they truly belong). He then finds a flower; an echo, of which he believes is mocking him; many roses (which depress him, because the rose on his planet had told him she was the only one of her kind in the universe); and a fox, whom he befriends and attempts to tame. He also meets some humans, who seem highly peculiar to him – a railway switchman who is unsatisfied, and knows people are unsatisfied, except for children, who are the only ones that know what they are looking for; and a merchant, who sells pills that, will quench thirst and save valuable time.
This is the end of the little prince’s told story, the part where he ends up in the desert with the narrator pilot. They finally find a well to quench their thirst, and share an understanding moment when they both know that people no longer see what is most important in life but lead mechanical, empty lives. However, the little prince misses his homeland dreadfully, and finds the snake to bite him and send him back to his asteroid. Before he leaves, he gives the narrator a gift of “laughing stars,” something no one else in the universe has. The narrator, with his newfound friend and outlook on life, then proceeds to examine the lovely and sad landscape of the desert and the lone star of the little prince, shining in the night sky.

d. CLIMAX
The climax of the plot occurs when the Little Prince decides to return to his planet and care for his special flower. He has learned from the fox that the important things in life cannot be seen with the eye, only felt with the heart. This lesson eventually makes the Little Prince realize that the flower from which he has fled is really very special. After meeting the narrator and explaining all that he has learned since he left his planet, the Prince accepts that he really loves the flower because she is his responsibility, and he has invested time and trouble in her survival. As a result, he decides that he must go back to his star to take care of his special rose.
e. POINT OF VIEW
The narrator gives a first-person account, although he spends large portions of the story recounting the little prince’s own story of his travels. It is actually told through first-person, in the words of the narrator who gets stranded in the Sahara desert. Although parts of the story tend to sound as if they are being told in an omniscient style, like when the Little Prince ventures from the various asteroids, the telling of these experiences is based on what the narrator has learned while he is with the Little Prince himself. For example, at one part, when the narrator describes his situation: “I realized clearly that something extraordinary was happening. I was holding him close in my arms as if he were a little child; and yet it seemed to me that he was rushing headlong toward an abyss from which I could do nothing to restrain him…” That is a line that would only appear in the narration of a first-person point of view story.
f. MOOD
The mood is mostly adventurous and mysterious, with a philosophical overtone. At first the Little Prince does not reveal his identity, creating an initial sense of mystery. Then as the Little Prince recounts his travels, the mood becomes adventurous. As he questions the fox and the narrator, the mood becomes philosophic. At the end, when the Prince arranges to be bitten by the snake, the mood again becomes mysterious. Although he seems to die from the snake bite, the narrator cannot find the Prince’s body when he looks for it the next morning. He can only assume that the Prince successfully returns to his star.
g. MORAL OF THE STORY
The story talks about values in life. These are values that usually grown-ups ignore and only children can understand. The moral of the story is too seeing not only with the use of your eyes but with your eyes. We usually ignore simple things in life because we are focusing on our wants that we thought are our needs. We usually disregard the fact that we can only find true happiness if we are going to be contented on what we have. We must know the true meaning of life. No stress. No Pressure. Just Happiness.

h. IRONY
In this story, the ending is so tragic that the narrator must suffer from snake’s bite and the little prince vanished from nowhere.

i. THEMES
Major Themes
In The Little Prince, Saint-Exupéry explains the importance of seeing the whole truth in order to find beauty. He believes that visible things are only shells that hint at the real worth hidden inside. He points out that man has not learned to look beneath the surface, or perhaps, has forgotten how to do so. Because adults never look inside, they will never know themselves or others.
All his life, Saint-Exupéry thought that grown-ups cared mostly about inconsequential matters, such as golf and neckties. When they talked about important matters, they always became dull and boring. They seemed afraid to open up their hearts to the real issues of life; instead, they chose to function on a surface level.
In the book, the fox teaches that one can see only what is important in life by looking with the heart. Because of this lesson, Saint-Exupéry leaves the desert as a different person. He has accepted the Little Prince’s thought that “’the stars are beautiful because of a flower that cannot be seen.” In essence, the fox’s lesson is about how to love, a most important lesson for everybody to learn. The fox points out that it is the time that one “wastes” on someone or something that makes it important. The fox also tells the readers that love can overcome existentialism: “One only knows the things that one tames…. Men buy things already made in the stores. But as there are no stores where friends can be bought, men no
longer have friends.” A human must earn a friendship, not buy it.
Finally, Saint-Exupéry explains how all joy and pleasure must be earned, not given or received. As an example, he shows the joy that the Little Prince and the pilot feel when they taste the water from the well. Its sweetness comes from their journey under the stars and the work of the pilot’s arms making the pulley sing. In the end, the Little Prince again experiences a new joy. Leaving his “shell” behind, he has gone to the most beautiful place he can imagine — his star, which is his love; he has returned to his own little heaven.
Minor Themes
Saint-Exupéry scorns man’s obsession with the wrong things, such as wealth, power, and technology; he uses the King, the Businessman, and the Lamplighter to highlight this theme. The king puts a great deal of importance into being obeyed, even though he orders only what would happen anyway. The businessman takes great pride in owning all the stars, but he is too busy counting them to gain any pleasure from their beauty. The Little Prince tries to teach him the pointlessness of his “property.” The Little Prince also scorns the Lamplighter’s fascination with science and technology. He is so caught up in the importance of lighting his lamp, that he misses what is important in life.
The need to have faith is another minor theme in the book. The Little Prince arrives on the Earth during a spiritually troubled phase and stays until he has resolved his confusions. During his stay, he teaches the narrator the importance of having faith and belief. Many critics have called the Little Prince a Christ-figure, for he is described as being free of sin. He also believes in a life after death. At the end of the book, he returns to his star, his heaven.

j. Symbolism
The little prince can be read on two different levels. It’s a children’s book, yet each and every character brings a universal message. The story is about the “beautiful and sad passage of the world”, in that adults cannot appreciate the things that children do even though they were once children. I have listed some of the characters and things in the book and what they symbolize.
King – the king is depicted a self-centered person who thinks highly of himself. However, this superiority brings only loneliness to him and causes people, like the little prince to leave him. He thinks he knows everything and possesses everything, but in truth, he is very ignorant of the world beyond his miniature planet. The king represents people in our society who think of themselves as superior beings. They don’t listen to other’s opinions and disregard the consequences of their actions. In the end, all they get is disrespect instead of the respect that they believe they should have.
Clown (conceited man) – the clown, like the king, is also very conceited. However, unlike the king, he is so self-indulged that he lives his life looking for admirers. The clown is like a blind person who cannot see the beauty of the world because he is so focused on himself. He also does not recognize faults within himself because he’s so self-absorbed. For a person to be respected and admired, one needs to contribute to the world or to make a difference in someone’s life. The clown does neither. He is living a life that is meaningless and full of lies because he fully believes that he’s the most wonderful person in the world, even though he did nothing to build his reputation. Hence, one cannot judge a person by their appearance or by the way the talk. One can only judge a person by the things they do and don’t do.
The Flower – flowers blossom from tiny sprouts which grow from tiny seeds under the earth. Throughout the life of a flower, it changes and grows and blossoms. The flower in the story grows like this too, except she grows to becoming more mature and caring. At the beginning she nags the little prince all the time and orders him to do stuff for her. She’s seems very conceited, but when the little prince leaves, she feels very sad and thinks that it is her fault that he little prince is leaving. The flower to the prince, is the treasure and the “essential” that one can only see with the heart. He finally learns to appreciate her because he has lost her. The flower can be compared to mothers. Mothers nag their children all the time to pick their clothes, make the bed, take the trash out, and perform different duties. However, their intentions are good. They care deeply for their children and keep a roof over their children’s heads even though they might seem unfair or annoying at times. It is when we lose our moms, that we will realize their importance in our lives.
The little prince – the little prince represent innocence, ignorance, and purity. When the prince goes to visit the people on the planets, he cannot understand them and thinks that they are very bizarre. He wonders why the businessman counts the stars because he doesn’t do anything with the starts except “possess” them. He also does not understand why his flower is “ephemeral”, and that he will lose her one day because she will die. These truths remain unclear throughout his journey because he is innocent. He cannot see the reality of the world around him, nor can he understand the mind of the adults. When he meets the snake, the snake does not bite him because he is so pure. The little prince does not know the dangers that a snake represents and so he talks to it just like he did to the fox. His mind is unadulterated by evil, money, and greed like the mind of adults are. Furthermore, he can see what adults don’t. For example, he finally understands the importance of the flower to him because she is unique to him and he is to her. Hence, he must protect and care for her. Adults don’t understand things like this: they don’t know why a flower would ever be as important as money or fame, nor would they care if a flower died and the stars cried. The prince brings back childhood memories into the life of the narrator that he has long forgotten. He teaches the narrator to be responsible for those you love and have tamed, and to be yourself even though no one is listening to you. The little prince also teaches us that the best things in the world aren’t necessarily the most expensive, the rarest, the fanciest, but the things that we see and can enjoy everyday like friends and family.
The Businessman – the business man represents the perfect adult because his mind is only occupied by numbers. As we grow up, our interests change because of what society demands of us. We must take responsibility and earn a living. Hence, we can no longer be a child and play with toys or play on playground.

C. General Comment
“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves, and it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them.”–The Little Prince
“The little prince returns to his planet, finally understanding love, uniqueness, and diversity in a broader and fuller sense.”
If I were to suggest only one book for adults to read, this would be the title. I’m sure you can argue why this is the wrong decision, but this is my personal opinion and I’m sticking by it. Even throughout your teenage years, embarking on becoming an adult, you forget what it’s like to be a child. This book is the perfect reminder that there is more to life than numbers, appearances or power.
The story is about an adventurous travel of a little prince that could teach a lot of lessons to every reader. It is good book that adults must read because of the idea that in this world we are blinded by different things that we thought are important for our lifestyle and existence on this world yet we are missing the real things that could give us extreme happiness and sad to say we, especially the grown-ups, realize it when they are going to die. I have fun reading the books because of some humorous events. I was entertained by the little prince as well as his travel from different planets where he met a lot of people that I could say a representation of people in our world. Lastly, I enjoy the pictures in this book (haha) especially the drawings of the narrator.

III. Biography of the Author

Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry
Year Event
1900 29 June: birth of Antoine Jean-Baptiste Marie Roger de Saint-Exupéry, third of five children born to Jean de Saint-Exupéry, insurance inspector, and Marie de Fonscolombe. The Saint-Exupéry name appears in the Crusades Hall in Versailles.
1904 Death of Jean de Saint-Exupéry.
1904-1917 Pupil at the Jesuit school of Notre-Dame de Sainte-Croix in Le Mans, and the Saint-Jean de Fribourg school in Switzerland. In 1912, during his summer holidays, Antoine experiences his maiden flight from the Ambérieu en Bugey aerodrome.
1917 – June: Saint-Exupéry passes his baccalaureate exam.
– July: death of younger brother François.
– Saint-Exupéry prepares to sit the Naval Academy entrance examination in a higher maths class at the Lycée Saint-Louis preparatory school in Paris, and then at the Lycée Lakanal in Sceaux.
1919 After passing the written entrance exam for the Naval Academy, Saint-Exupéry fails the oral exam.
1920 Student at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (architecture department).
1921-1923 – 1921: national service in the 2nd Aviation regiment in Strasbourg. Saint-Exupéry is awarded his civil and military pilot’s licence.
– 1922: promoted to sub-lieutenant, assigned to the 34th Aviation regiment at Le Bourget.
– January 1923: involved in a plane crash at Le Bourget (fractured skull). Saint-Exupéry leaves the armed forces.
1923-1925 Engagement, broken off after 3 months, to Louise de Vilmorin. Saint-Exupéry works as production inspector at the Tuileries de Boiron tile factory, then as a salesman for Saurer trucks.
1926 – 1 April: his short story L’Aviateur (The Aviator) is published in the magazine Le Navire d’Argent.
– October: hired by the Compagnie Latécoère, which would later become l’Aéropostale, flying between Toulouse and Dakar and later, from 1928 onwards, as far as Buenos Aires, then Santiago, Chile, and Tierra del Fuego.
1927 October: appointed head of the Cap Juby airfield in the south of Morocco; writes Courrier Sud (Southern Mail).
1929 – appointed director of Aeropostal Argentina and moves to Buenos Aires.
– Courrier Sud published by Gallimard.
1930 June: Guillaumet’s plane crash-lands in the Andes. Saint-Exupéry makes numerous attempted rescue flights. Guillaumet successfully crosses the mountains on foot to safety.
1931 – April: marries Consuelo Suncin (1902-1979), Salvadorian by birth but with Argentine nationality.
– May to December: Saint-Exupéry pilots night flights on the Casablanca-Port Etienne line.
– Vol de Nuit (Night Flight) published by Gallimard, wins the Femina prize.
1932-1933 Based in Casablanca then, after the collapse of l’Aéropostale, he signed on as a test pilot to help with the financial difficulties that were to dog him throughout his life. Splashes down in the bay of Saint-Raphaël.
1934-1935 Once again based in Paris, Saint-Exupéry travels to North African and Indochina. Newspaper Paris-Soir sends him as correspondent to Moscow. Takes part in the attempt on the Paris-Saigon speed record, resulting in another accident: his plane comes down in the middle of the desert, 200 kilometres from Cairo.
1936 – Newspaper L’Intransigeant sends him to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War.
– Saint-Exupéry writes the screenplay based on Courrier Sud. Pierre Bion directs the film.
1937 – At the request of Air France, Saint-Exupéry scouts a possible air route between Casablanca and Timbuktu.
– Writes the screenplay of Anne-Marie.
– October to November: Saint-Exupéry registers four patents (out of a total of a dozen registered up to 1944).
1938 – January: travels to the United States.
– February: sets off to fly from New York to Tierra del Fuego, yet another accident in Guatemala (seven fractures to the skull).
1939 – February: Terre des Hommes (Wind, Sand and Stars) published by Gallimard, wins the Académie Française Grand Prix du Roman novel-writing prize.
– September: called up in Toulouse as a flying instructor, he talks his way into a transfer to the 2/33 reconnaissance squadron based at Orconte. Saint-Exupéry flies high-risk missions. Continuing into 1940, his missions, particularly over Arras, inspire the story of his next novel, Pilote de Guerre (Flight to Arras).
1940 – 2/33 Squadron falls back to Algiers.
– After demobilisation, Saint-Exupéry finally leaves in December for the United States.
1942 – Pilote de Guerre published in France (where the book is banned by the Vichy government) at the same time as its English translation, Flight to Arras, in the USA.
– Summer/autumn: Saint-Exupéry writes and illustrates Le Petit Prince, dedicated to his friend Léon Werth.
1943 – April: publishers Reynal & Hitchcock publish Le Petit Prince simultaneously in french and in english translation.
– May: Saint-Exupéry returns to Algeria to rejoin 2/33 Squadron, now part of the Free French forces. Because of his age, he has difficulty convincing the authorities to let him fly.
1944 – The squadron transfers to Corsica. Saint-Exupéry is made its commander. He is authorised to fly five missions, and in fact flies eight.
– 31 July: For his ninth mission, Saint-Exupéry is sent on a reconnaissance flight in preparation for the Allied landings in the South of France. His plane is shot down by a German fighter pilot and lost at sea.
1948 Citadelle (The Wisdom of the Sands) published posthumously.
1998 Off the coast of Marseilles, Jean-Claude Bianco, a fisherman, picks up in its nets an identity bracelet bearing Saint-Exupéry’s name.
2000-2003 The wreck of a P-38 Lightning is found near the Ile de Riou. The serial number on the body identifies the plane as the one Saint-Exupéry was flying on his last mission.

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Reproduction Health Bill

I. Reproductive Health Bill: An Introduction

“Reverence for life affords me my fundamental principle of morality, namely that good consists in maintaining, assisting, and enhancing life, and that to destroy, to harm, or to hinder life is evil”- Albert Schweitzer
Reproductive Health and Population Development Act of 2008 is the quintessence of irony – a bill which is more commonly referred to by the general populace as RH Bill. It has been receiving churning praises and condemnations, commendations and criticisms from countless Filipino from all walks of life since its proposed legalization almost four years ago.
This bill is a substitution to HB Nos. 17, 812, 2753 & 3970. Introduced by Reps. Edcel C. Lagman, Janette L. Garin, Narciso D.Santiago III, Mark Llandro Mendoza, Ana Theresia Hontiveros-Baraquel, Eleandro Jesus F. Madrona.
RH Bill covers the following issues: (1) Information and access to natural and modern family planning (2) Maternal, infant and child health and nutrition (3) Promotion of breast feeding (4) Prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications (5) Adolescent and youth health (6) Prevention and management of reproductive tract infections, HIV/AIDS and STDs (7) Elimination of violence against women (8) Counseling on sexuality and sexual and reproductive health (9) Treatment of breast and reproductive tract cancers (10) Male involvement and participation in RH; (11) Prevention and treatment of infertility and (12) RH education for the youth.
As was proposed by the Congress, this bill is supposedly an act of “providing for a national policy on reproductive health, responsible parenthood and population development, and for other purposes as well” as well as to uphold and promote “responsible parenthood, informed choice, birth spacing and respect for life in conformity with internationally recognized human rights standards” through the use of contraceptives. (SEC. 2 Declaration of Policy, Reproductive Health and Population Development Act of 2009). Though the proposed end is undeniably favorable, it certainly does not justify the means in which the government plans in attaining it.
It also promotes sustainable human development. The UN stated in 2002 that “family planning and reproductive health are essential to reducing poverty.” The UNICEF also asserts that “family planning could bring more benefits to more people at less cost than any other single technology now available to the human race.”
The church is against the implementation of this act simply because it blatantly violates the rule of ethics born of our Christian faith and traditions while the government is doing its best to persuade the people in legalizing it which. It goes against what nature dictates, does not promote the sanctity of sexual intercourse and marriage, and does not uphold nor promote the human dignity and morality.
Take one perception, contraceptive is a way of controlling population, a necessary guideline in family planning and the raising of the awareness of the youth through sex education; take another, it could also lead to complications such as premarital sex, legalization of abortion, health risks and desecration of the sacredness of sex and marriage.
Much has been said regarding this issue. It has both been deemed as an aid to the society as well as a threat to its morality. As a country struggling to achieve economic stability, improve livelihood and to keep up with the pressures of globalization, we cannot risking losing both. So what will it be, between two opposing forces, both having the country’s best interest at heart, which side will we ultimately stand?

II. Definition
Contraceptive – capable of preventing conception or impregnation; “contraceptive devices and medications”
(The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.)
Reproductive Health -refers to the state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. This implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so, provided that these are not against the law. This further implies that women and men are afforded equal status in matters related to sexual relations and reproduction.
pro-life – advocating full legal protection of embryos and fetuses (especially opposing the legalization of induced abortions)
pro-choice – advocating a woman’s right to control her own body (especially her right to an induced abortion)
(Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2008 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.)
Birth control pills (oral contraceptives)-prescription medications that prevent pregnancy. Three combinations of birth control pills that contain progestin and estrogen are 1) monophasic, 2) biphasic, and 3) triphasic. Birth control pills may also be prescribed to reduce menstrual cramps or prevent anemia. Certain prescription medications may cause drug interactions. Some women experience various levels of side effects of birth control pills.

III. Explanatory Notes: A Further Information on RH Bill
It is worth noting, however, that available studies, data and statistics show that the Filipinos are responsive to having smaller-sized families through free choice of family planning methods:
a. The desired fertility rate of Filipino women is 2.5 children per woman. However, the actual total fertility rate is 3.5 or a difference of one child because of the lack of information and absence of access to family planning. The current unmet need for contraceptives for example is 23.15% for poor women and 13.6% for women who are not poor (2003 National Demographic and Health Survey)
b. 61% of currently married women do not want additional children (2003 National Demographic and Health Survey)
c. 50.6% of the youth want to have only two children (2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey)
d. 97% of all Filipinos believe it is important to have the ability to control one’s fertility or to plan one’s family. It is significant to note that 87% of the total respondents are Roman Catholic (February 2004 Pulse Asia Survey)
e. Nearly nine in ten Filipinos or 86% say that candidates for elective positions who advocate a program for women’s health should be supported while only 2% say they should be rejected and 12% are undecided on the matter;
f. 82% say that candidates in favor of couples’ free choice of family planning methods should be supported while only 3% think otherwise and 15% are undecided;
g. 82% of Filipinos consider candidates supporting a law or measure on population issues worthy of their voltes while only 3% say such candidates should not be backed at the polls and 15% are undecided;
h. 83% of Filipinos say they are in favor of candidates who support the allocation of goverment funds for family planning while only 2% say they are not and 15% are undecided; and
i. A mere 8% of Filipinos believe that a candidate’s championing of family planning issues will spell that candidate’s defeat at the polls.
j. In July 1991, the Social Weather Stations conducted a survey that revealed that 97% of Filipinos want to have the ability to control their fertility and plan their families.
Notwithstanding these findings that favor smaller-sized families, this bill is not a population control measure with the sole objective of limiting population growth. It provides for population development that aims to:
(a) help couples/parents achieve their desired fertility size in the context of responsible parenthood;
(b) improve reproductive health of individuals and contribute to decreased maternal mortality rate, infant mortality and early child mortality;
(c) reduce incidence of teenage pregnancy and other reproductive health problems; and
(d) contribute to policies that will assist government to achieve a favorable balance between population and distribution, economic activities and the environment.
This measure is not coercive. It gives couples the freedom to decide whether or not to plan their families or space or limit their children. Those who decide to plan their families also have the freedom to choose what method of contraception is best suited for them. The so called “two child policy” is voluntary, not compulsory; suggestive, not coercive; and absolutely not punitive. It is not even a policy. It is a suggested ideal or norm.
Accordingly, this bill seeks to provide the enabling environment for couples and individuals to enjoy the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education, and access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice.
This proposed law aims to uphold and promote the four pillars of population and development enunciated by no less than President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo herself in her statement of support for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) namely: (1) responsible parenthood, (2) informed choice, (3) birth spacing, and (4) respect for life.
It should be clarified, however, that this bill does not only protect the life of the unborn from the moment of implantation but that of the mother as well. Hence, the bill seeks to promote the reproductive health of women basically through massive and sustained information campaign on reproductive health rights, care, services and facilities coupled with universal access to all methods of family planning ranging from the natural to the modern which are medically safe and legally permissible. In the event they fail to prevent pregnancy and resort to abortion, they shall be provided with appropriate health and medical care. Despite the provision for humane and compassionate management of post abortion complications, this bill continues to proscribe and penalize abortion which is a crime under the Revised Penal Code.
To contribute to the empowerment and responsible behavior of the youth, this proposed legislation provides for age-appropriate reproductive health and sexuality education that may be initiated by parents at house, and shall be sustained and complemented by formal education in school.
An effective reproductive health education does not only instill consciousness of freedom of choice but responsible exercise of one’s rights. According to the United Nations Population Fund: “It has been, repeatedly shown that reproductive health education leads to responsible behavior, higher levels of abstinence, later initiation of sexuality, higher use of contraception, and fewer sexual partners, These good effects are even greater when parents can talk honestly with their children about sexual and reproductive matters.”
To guarantee the right of all persons to a full range of information on family planning methods, services and facilities and to ensure their access to an equally full range of medically safe and effective family planning methods at an appropriate time and by competent and adequately trained persons,the bill mandates the Commission on Population (POPCOM) to be the central planning, coordinating, implementing and monitoring body for the comprehensive and integrated policy on reproductive health and population development. Section 5 of the bill specifies the functions of POPCOM as the lead agency in the implementation of the “Reproductive Health, Responsible Parenthood and Population Development Act of 2007″.
This proposed Act doses not only seek to protect and promote reproductive health and rights and to empower couples, individuals, more particularly women, and the youth, but it also aims to improve the quality of life of the people in general. Studies show that rapid population growth exacerbates poverty while poverty spawns rapid population growth. Consider the following:
• The Family Income and Exfenditures Surveys by the National Statistics Office (NSO) from 1985-2000 disclose that 57.3% of families having many children are poor but only 15.7% of families having two children are poor.
• Large family size is associated with negative determinant of school participation and poor health and survival rates among children. (Orbeta, Population and the Fight Against Poverty, 2003)
• The prevalence of child labor rises, and school attendance falls, with the number of children in the family (Raymundo, 2004). Moreover,the odds of a child becoming underweight and stunted are greater if he/she belongs to a household with 5 or more members (FNRI 1998). This partly explains why poverty tends to be transmitted and sustained from one generation to the next.
• According to the UN Population Fund 2002 Report, “lower birth rates and slower population growth over the last three decades have contributed faster economic progress in a number of developing countries.”
• Moreover,the same Report disclosed that fertility declines accounted for 1/5th of the economic growth in East Asia between 1960 and 1995. Additionally, it showed that countries that invest in health, including reproductive health and family planning, and in education and women’s development register slower population growth and faster economic growth.

IV. Background
House Bill number 5043 entitled “Reproductive Health and Population Development Act of 2008“is an act which “upholds and promotes responsible parenthood, informed choice, birth spacing and respect for life in conformity with internationally recognized human rights standards.
This bill is a substitution to HB Nos. 17, 812, 2753 & 3970. Introduced by Reps. Edcel C. Lagman, Janette L. Garin, Narciso D.Santiago III, Mark Llandro Mendoza, Ana Theresia Hontiveros-Baraquel, Eleandro Jesus F. Madrona.
RH Bill covers the following issues: (1) Information and access to natural and modern family planning (2) Maternal, infant and child health and nutrition (3) Promotion of breast feeding (4) Prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications (5) Adolescent and youth health (6) Prevention and management of reproductive tract infections, HIV/AIDS and STDs (7) Elimination of violence against women (8) Counseling on sexuality and sexual and reproductive health (9) Treatment of breast and reproductive tract cancers (10) Male involvement and participation in RH; (11) Prevention and treatment of infertility and (12) RH education for the youth.
The State shall uphold the right of the people, particularly women and their organizations, to effective and reasonable participation in the formulation and implementation of the declared policy.
This policy is anchored on the rationale that sustainable human development is better assured with a manageable population of healthy, educated and productive citizens.
It does not have any bias for or against either natural or modern family planning. Both modes are contraceptive methods. Their common purpose is to prevent unwanted pregnancies.
It also aims to promote sustainable human development. The UN stated in 2002 that “family planning and reproductive health are essential to reducing poverty.” The UNICEF also asserts that “family planning could bring more benefits to more people at less cost than any other single technology now available to the human race.”
The State likewise guarantees universal access to medically-safe, legal, affordable and quality reproductive health care services, methods, devices, supplies and relevant information thereon even as it prioritizes the needs of women and children, among other underprivileged sectors.” (Section 2 Declaration of Policy, House Bill No. 5043). This means the right to informed choice and access to a full range of legal, medically-safe and effective family planning methods such as contraceptives.
V. Government’s Stand: “This is an Affair of the State”
The Reproductive health bill is a departure from the “current system and a step forward to improve the quality of life”( Dr.Nimfa Baria, Department of Anesthesiology, FEU-NRMF, Medical Department). RH Bill, taken from the government’s perspective, promotes responsible parenthood, gender equality, sexual awareness, and population-control as concrete steps for the betterment of our nation.
“The present population of the country of 88.7 million has galloped from 60.7 million 17 years ago. This makes the Philippines the 12th most populous nation in the world today. The Filipino women’s fertility rate of 3.05% is at the upper bracket of 206 countries. With four babies born every minute, the population is expected to balloon to an alarming 160 million in 2038.” (Explanatory Note, House Bill No. 17, Introduced by HONORABLE EDCEL C. LAGMAN)
This number reflects the alarming condition as well as the extent of affliction from which our nation is suffering under extreme poverty which can be rooted from the fact that each family includes 6-8 children to be fed, housed and educated within the minimum wage of Php 404.00 per day. This is barely enough for a medium-sized family of 4 to live by, how much more will this family of 8 survive with it? If this bill is legalized, families from underprivileged sectors can have free access to contraceptives which can help them limit or control the number of children they plan to have. Therefore, they can provide better sustenance, shelter, education and attention to their offspring.
It can also promote gender equality especially in these times wherein male stands supreme than the female. This ensures that women can have the same access to contraceptives just as much as men do. It can also protect the women from unwanted pregnancies and other sexually-transmitted diseases.
RH Bill also states the inclusion of sex education in primary level (Grade 5) through high school (4th). This will raise awareness among the youth of the possible consequences to which sexual intercourse may lead. This will include instructive teachings about contraceptives as well as its specific uses, informative education on sexual intercourse as well the diseases which can be obtained through it. Knowing the probable outcome of their choices will teach them to be responsible both in their decision as well as their actions even in their early age. These principles can properly guide them in weighing options which they may encounter later on.
Unwanted pregnancies may lead to drastic decisions to get rid of the unplanned baby which forces the mother to resort to illegal and unhygienic ways. This may lead to acquisition of diseases and infections which can usually be acquired by the mother and which can cause abnormality should the baby survive. RH Bill offers the use of contraceptives to prevent these things from happening.
Through the implementation of this bill, there will be less people suffering from unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted disease and poverty. Maternal death and mortality rate will be reduced. Couples will be well-prepared in building and planning a family. Children will be provided with proper care, adequate attention and suitable education they need and deserve. The youth will be informed and aware of their choices, be open-minded with regards to sexual matter, and be instilled with necessary guidance and principles which allows them to grow and to be honed to be responsible citizens.

VI. Church: “There can be no high civility without a deep morality”- Ralph Waldo Emerson
“Government, obviously, cannot fill a child’s…needs. Nor can it fill his spiritual and moral needs. Government is not a father or mother. Government has never raised a child, and it never will.
-William Bennett
The Catholic Church principally and primarily promotes and upholds human dignity. As oppose to what others may think, the Church even adheres to progress made by the sciences and the advancement through technology, insofar as these sciences do not trigger human exploitation and the possible degeneration of the Filipino’s morality influenced by politics and media. The Church willingly promotes and encourages proper family planning according to what the couple can rightfully sustain. That is why prior to the RH Bill, there must be proper discipline and education. There is no need for more redundant laws and contradictory articles which, in the end and ultimately, can injure the people’s ethics and values.
The country can still progress and at the same time manage its population without the need for contraceptives which can damage an individual morally as well as physically. We cannot let the attainment of progress and economic stability be at the expense of the people’s morality and dignity.
“There is a moral law in this world which has its application both to individuals and organized bodies of men. You cannot go on violating these laws in the name of your nation, yet enjoy their advantage as individuals”( Rabindranath Tagore).
Let the Church counsel and guide us on moral issues; let’s not rely on the sole presumptions of the politicians and the media. The Church’s stand will not change because it involves the nature of man as an image of the dignified creature created in the image and likeness of God.
There should not be any controversy to RH Bill as the Bible also teaches family planning to avoid economic difficulties in life. But to use man-made gadgets or operate on reproductive organs to avoid pregnancy are not natural means of birth control. A woman’s monthly period is natural so the means of controlling pregnancy must also be natural. Taking away the element of procreation in mating will leave only the expression of love and lustful satisfaction; thus, excluding the presence of God in the family.
It also goes against what nature dictates. There’s an inherent law that governs life that if an action has been executed, there needs be a consequence predicated upon it. RH Bill separates the concept of sexual intercourse from child-bearing, making it just a physical act out of lust and not a God-administer action. People will just have sex because they know that with the use of contraceptives, they will not have a baby to provide for later. In consequence, prostitution rate will sky-rocket and pre-marital sex will become a norm in the society.
By implementing the use of contraceptive to supposedly control the population, the good motive of procreation is somehow cancelled because sexual intercourse can now be done purely as an act of enjoyment and pleasure. Papal encyclicals published this century have simply affirmed the long-held views that the chief purposes of marriage are procreation and the rearing of children. It is disputed that the natural end of sexual intercourse is the conception of a child and that anything which interferes with this process is contrary to nature and is deemed unlawful. Both Pope Pius XII (1952) and Pope Paul VI (1968) permitted the use of the “rhythm” and other natural methods, such as abstinence, for their followers. They stated and taught that artificial contraception which separates “unitive” and procreative aspects of sexual intercourse breaks moral law. The church still stands true by this view today.
The Bible clearly depicts that there are more reasons for sex within marriage than simply procreation. In any given case, children is viewed upon as additional blessings in the Bible (Psalm 127:3-5), not an automatic occurrence. The unity of husband and wife in marriage is spoken of as mystery (Ephesians 5:25-32) expressing the relationship between Christ and His church.
RH Bill’s disadvantages outweigh its supposed benefits. It does not comply with the conservative tradition and culture of the Philippines, it hinders and prevents the conception of potential human beings, and the sanctity of marriage and sexual intercourse is demoralized. Should the RH Bill be legalized, there is not enough assurance that this will aid in the growth and development of our country. After all that has been said, one thing is inevitable: human dignity and morality will be injured regardless of the effectivity of the said bill.

VII. Conclusion: “There Can Be No High Civility Without a Deep Morality”
“The hottest place in Hell is reserved for those who remain neutral in times of great moral conflict.”-Dante Alighieri
We are against the implementation of Reproductive Health Bill which encourages the use of contraceptives as well as the inclusion of sex education on all primary levels of education because it opposes the natural way of living, does not promote the sanctity of sexual intercourse and marriage, and does not uphold the human dignity and morality.
Government, obviously, cannot fill a child’s educational needs. Nor can it “fill his spiritual and moral needs. Government is not a father or mother. Government has never raised a child, and it never will.”- William Bennett
Sex education is not the responsibility of the government. It must begin with the parents should they feel that their children are mentally-capable of accepting ideas on sexual matters. Children vary in degrees of maturity and consciousness and in dealing with sensitive matters such as these. The government is fulfilling a responsibility which is not rightfully theirs. Guidance they can provide but they cannot go beyond that. They cannot educate a group of children on sex without regards of there different stages of readiness in introducing them to such a sensitive subject. This may bear misunderstanding that may affect their principles and values.
With legalization of RH Bill comes the advent of pre-marital sex, “live-in” and prostitution. the Primarily people will no longer respect the sanctity of marriage, and in the long run, they will treat the church and its doctrines which administrates it the same way. Without the fear for a Divine Being, people’s ethics will degenerate and when it does, they can do pretty much whatever pleases them without taking in consideration the effect it can make to other people.
“The contraceptive mentality suggests that man and woman have absolute and total control over their reproduction lives. Once you have that mindset and the contraceptives fail, then you can eliminate that problem [pregnancy] as well.” (Washington Monthly, 1991)

The use of contraceptives is also unnatural, anti-life, form of abortion. Rather than promoting the beauty of procreation, it highlights the risks of pregnancy and its associated woes. It is a general truth that the natural end of sexual intercourse is the conception of a child. By using man-made objects to change this natural law is considered unlawful and immoral. Should the contraceptives fail, couples, especially the woman, in an act of desperation will resort to abortion, which is considered a crime and tantamount to murder.
Contraceptives also demean the status of women. As prostitution is rampant nowadays, women will be assured that sexual intercourse with men cannot bear them a child. They will view sex as both pleasure and a source of added income without “any strings attached”. Instead of revering the nature of woman as “life-giver” to a potential human being, some are now viewed as sex-objects for momentary satisfaction of lust. Again, should the contraceptive fail, a woman, now faced with the burden and responsibility of both carrying and rearing a child, will now turn to abortion to get rid of the unwanted baby.
We do not believe that contraceptive can help our country achieve its goals. It is a doorway for people to commit immoral actions without the fear of the consequences which may follow. Law and morality is not at odds; law is simply “too young to understand”.

Salty Coffee :) – a sweet love story

He met her on a party, she was so outstanding, many guys chasing after her,while he was so normal, nobody paid attention to him. At the end of the party, he invited her to have coffee with him, she was surprised, but due to politeness, she promised. They sat in a nice coffee shop, he was too nervous to say anything, she felt uncomfortable, she thought, please, let me back home. Suddenly he asked the waiter: would you please give me some salt? I’d like to put it in my coffee.

Everybody stared at him, so strange! His face turned red, but, still, he put the salt in his coffee and drank it. She asked him curiously: why you have this hobby? He replied: when I was a little boy, I was living near the sea, I like playing in the sea, I could felt the taste of the sea, salty and bite, just like the taste of the salty coffee. Now every time I have the salty coffee, I will think of my childhood, think of my hometown, I miss my hometown so much, I miss my parents who still living there. Saying that, tears filled his eyes. She was deeply touched. That’s his true feeling, from the bottom of his heart.

“A man who can tell out his homesick, he must be a man loves home, cares about home, has responsibility of home,” she thought. Then she also started to talk, talked about her faraway hometown, her childhood, her family. That was a really nice talk, also a beautiful beginning of their story. They continue to date. She found actually he was a man who meets all her demands: he was tolerance, kind hearted, warm, careful…he was such a good guy but she almost missed him! Thanks to his salty coffee!

Then the story was just like every beautiful love story: the princess married to the prince, then they were living the happy life…And, every time she made coffee for him, she put some salt in the coffee, as she knew that’s the way he liked.

After 40 years, he passed away, left her a letter which said: “My dearest, please forgive me, forgive my whole life lie. This was the only lie I said to you, the salty coffee. Remember the first time we dated? I was so nervous at that time, actually I wanted some sugar, but I said salt. It’s hard for me to change so I just go ahead. I never thought that could be the start of our communication! I tried to tell you the truth many times in my life, but I was too afraid to do that, as I have promised not to lie to you for anything..Now I’m dying, I afraid of nothing so I tell you the truth: I don’t like the salty coffee, what a strange bad taste..but I have the salty coffee for my whole life since I knew you, I never feel sorry for anything I do for you. Having you with me is my biggest happiness for my whole life.

If I can live for the second time, I still want to know you and have you as my whole life wife, even though I have to drink the salty coffee again.”

Her tears made the letter totally wet. Someday, someone asked her: What’s the taste of salty coffee?

It’s sweet. She replied.

Climate Change

Climate change in the Philippines is really a big issue especially nowadays where its effects are very evident. Rainy season comes early, almost in an unexpected situation. Landslides are being reported from provinces. Flash floods are also a major problem. El Niño and La Niña is almost a normal thing now in the Philippines. Humans are not the only one who experiences this but the animals as well.

The issue is about the aftereffects of climate change to animal extinction. According to Mr. Anson Ang, here in the Philippines climate change is not a yet a big factor why animals are becoming instinct. Overharvesting, chemical pollution, biological pollution and habitat destruction are the four main factors why there’s animal exploitation her in our country. Because of these, we are one of those countries worldwide who are experiencing the fast-growing decline of animal and plants species that put as on the list of what so called habitat biodiversity hot spot.

Overharvesting, or overfishing in the case of fish and marine invertebrates, depletes some species to very low numbers and drives others to extinction. In practical terms, it reduces valuable living resources to such low levels that their exploitation is no longer sustainable. Fresh water crocodile is one of those Philippine animals which are becoming extinct through this.

Biological Pollution is the disturbance of the ecological balance by the accidental or deliberate introduction of a foreign organism, animal or plant species into an environment. Importing other species could lead into this occurrence. As this new organism live with our own plants and animals, since they have to survive they will have to struggle for their food. When this happens, the tendency is some Philippine animals and plants will die. On the other hand, combination of species will also arise that could lead to depletion of those genuine Philippine animals and plants.

Chemical pollution occurs when chemicals resulting from human activities enter the environment, contaminating air, water or soil. This will destroy land, air and water areas. When these take place, it will lead to animals’ habitat destruction and animals are the most affected beings.

Among the four major factors, chemical pollution is also a factor of climate change. Climate change is also caused by human activities. Acid rain, greenhouse gases and ozone are all examples of chemical pollution. Chain reactions will occur because of this. First, habitat destruction, when their habitat is destroyed animals will look for other places where to stay however, the case is what if they could not adapt to the new environment, they will die. Next, there will be a competition of territory especially when foreign species become part of the ecosystem, this can lead to decreasing number of our authentic species. Last, the worst that could happen, if we, humans are affected with this pollution and it affects our health a lot what more the animals can be. These chemicals will exterminate animals.

The effects of these factors are temperature modifications, habitat devastation, and destruction of food chain. When animals have a low range tolerance when it comes to adaptation of changes in its surroundings it could lead them to death. Habitat is important for them because this is not only their home but the place where they will reproduce and when it is destroyed how come they will increase. The last is food chain destruction. Food chain is very important because this is the sequence of an animal survival. When this is disturb by the said factors above,  depletion of animals will start to transpire.

Maybe now, climate change is not yet an aspect of this immense animal annihilation, with the persistence of human actions and other natural factors, but if these activities will continue it will lead to climate change.

dekada ’70 project

Mga Tauhan ng Dekada ‘70:
Si Amanda Bartolome ay isang babaeng nagsisikap matunton at maunawaan ang tunay na kahulugan ng pagiging isang babae sa gitna ng masalimuot na kalagayan ng bansa noong dekada ’70 sa ilalim ng Batas Militar. Siya ay kumikilos bilang isang ina (sa limang anak na pulos lalaki) at asawa ayon sa dikta ng lipunan at ng asawa niyang si Julian. Bagama’t tradisyonal, umiiral sa pamilyang Bartolome ang kalayaan sa pagpapahayag ng damdamin kung kaya’t lumaki ang kanilang mga anak na mulat ang kamalayan sa nangyayari sa lipunan. Dahil dito’y sumali sa kilusang makakaliwa ang kanilang panganay na si Jules, naging makata at manunulat naman si Emman, at nahilig sa musikang rock n roll si Jason. Si Gani naman ay malayang pinasok ang pagiging US Navy bagama’t taliwas ito sa paniniwala ng mga kapatid. Nanatiling matatag ang pamilya Bartolome sa kabila ng napakaraming pagsubok ng panahon. Dito rin nasubok ang katatagan ng pagsasama nina Amanda at Julian, kung saan si Amanda ay nagnais na matunton ang sarili bilang isang babae, malayo sa dikta ng lipunan at ng asawa.

Mga Artistang Gumanap
Vilma Santos (bilang Amanda)

Maayos na nagampanan ni Vilma ang kanyang papel bilang si Amanda Bartolome. Muli niyang naipakita na kayang-kaya niyang gampanan ang papel bilang isang ina. Hindi ito ang unang beses na nagpakita si Vilma ng magandang pag-arte bilang isang ina. Gumanap na din siya bilang isang ina sa palabas na Anak at naipakita din niya doon na hindi na iba sa kanya ang pagganap bilang isang ina. Kahit na ang makikita nating ekspresiyon sa kanyang mukha bilang Amanda ay halos puro pagiging seryoso, maayos niya iyong naipakita at hindi siya nagkamali sa bawat ekspresiyon o reaksyon na ipinakita niya. Makikita mo sa kanyang pag-arte ang pagiging matatag at palaban na ina ni Amanda.
Christopher De Leon (bilang Julian)
Si Julian ang tumayong haligi ng isang pamilyang nakasanayang magpahayag ng damdamin, kaya nagkaroon siya ng mga anak na mulat ang kaisipan sa mga nangyayari sa kanilang lipunan at maganda ang pagkakaganap ni Christopher De Leon sa papel niyang iyon. Naipakita niyang mabuti ang mga katangian ng isang ama at naipakita din niya ng maayos ang mga katangian ni Julian na nabanggit sa nobela. Tama naman ang naging mga ekspresiyon ng kanyang mukha. Kahit man siya gaanong naipapakita sa palabas, maayos niyang nagampanan ang kanyang papel.
Piolo Pascual (bilang Jules)

Siya ang panganay na anak nila Amanda at Julian. Sa simula ng palabas ay makikita natin na hindi pa ganoon kabukas ang kanilang isip sa mga nangyayari sa kanilang paligid. Eskwela, babae at paglilibang pa lamang ang kanilang iniintindi pero ng si Jules ay lumaki, sumapi siya sa isang kilusang kontra sa pamahalaan. Doon naipakita niya ang kanyang pagmamahal at katapatan sa bayan. Kahit na siya’y pinahirapan at pinarusahan ng napakabigat, hindi pa din siya nagsalita at pinanatili niyang tikom ang kanyang bibig tungkol sa kanyang grupo. Matagumpay na nagampanan ni Piolo ang kanyang papel. Naipakita niya ng maayos ang tunay na katauhan ni Jules. Makikita mo talaga sa kanyang mga ekspresiyon na ang katauhan ni Jules ay talagang palaban at matapang. Lalo na noong siya’y nadakip at pinahihirapan, bakas sa kanyang mukha ang pagiging matatag at pagiging matapat. Noong siya naman ay binisita ng kanyang pamilya sa bilangguan, makikita mo sa kanyang mga mata, noong ipinagmamalaki niya sa kanyang mga magulang na hindi siya nagsalita tungkol sa kanyang grupo, na talagang siya’y may matibay na paninindigan at hindi siya susuko hangga’t siya’y mamatay.

Marvin Agustin (bilang Emman)
Siya ang ikalawang anak ng mag-asawang Amanda at Julian. Naging manunulat at makita siya. Hindi siya gaanong ipinakita sa palabas pero para sa akin ay naipakita niya ang kanyang dapat ipakita. Naipakita niya ng mabuti ang mga katangiang taglay ni Emman. Maayos niyang nagampanan ang kanyang papel.
Carlos Agassi (bilang Isagani)

Sa kanilang magkakapatid, siya ang unang napasubo sa maagang pag-aasawa. Sa pelikula, makikita mo na siya’y palaging may kausap sa telepono at may ginagawa pa siya habang nagtetelepono. Babae nga siguro ang kausap niya kaya at isa siguro iyon sa mga naging dahilan kung bakit siya maagang nakapag-asawa. Siya’y pumunta ng Amerika para sumali sa US Navy kahit na hindi ito sinangayunan ng kanyang mga kapatid. Naipakita lang mabuti ni Carlos Agassi ang pagiging teenager ni Gani pero hindi na masyado nung siya ay na sa US Navy na.

Danilo Barrios (bilang Jason)

Si Jason naman ay ang miyembro ng kanilang pamilya na may pagkatamad ngunit mabait. Kahit na ayaw niyang bumisita sa Kuya Jules niya noong ito’y nasa kulungan, wala siyang nagawa kundi ang sumama at nagkausap pa sila ng Kuya niya doon. Napansin ng kanyang Kuya Jules na si Jason ay parang gusto ng bumilis ang oras para siya’y lumaki na agad-agad at magkaroon ng sariling kalayaan sa pagkilos at paggawa ng kanyang mga gusto. Tama nga ang kanyang kuya. Si Jason nga ay yung tipo na ngayon magaapura sa oras pero pagdating ng panahon eh magbabago din ang isip. Naipakita ng maayos ni Danilo ang katangiang iyon. Bagay na bagay sa kanya ang papel na Jason. Bata pa din siya noon katulad ni Jason kaya angkop talaga ang naging papel niya.

John Wayne Sace (bilang Bingo o Benjamin)

Siya ang bunso sa magkakapatid. Angkop ang pangalang Benjamin sa kanya dahil siya nga ang bunso. Siya ay inosenteng bata pa lamang noong mga panahon na nakikipaglaban na ang kanyang mga kuya sa lipunan. Siya ang nagtanong kung bakit pinakawalan pa ang kalapati dahil baka daw hindi na iyon bumalik. Ang sabi ng kanyang ina na babalik pa ang kalapati dahil wala namang ginagawang masama dito para hindi ito bumalik. Hindi masyadong pinapakita si Bingo sa palabas ngunit maayos na naipakita ni John Wayne ang pagiging inosente ni Bingo.

Balangkas
I .Tagpuan:
• Sa highway
• Sa isang bahay sa Maynila
• Sa kulungan
II. Banghay:
• Natural ang mga pangyayari na naganap sa kwento. Ipinakita ang pag torture kay Jules na ginagawa ng mga sundalo.
• May pagkaka-ugnayugnay ang mga pangyayari sa kwento. Naugnay ang lahat ng pangyayari sa panahon ng Martial Law.
• Malinaw ang mga ipinakitang pangyayari dito. Ipinakita ang nanyayari noong panahon ng Martial Law o batas military.
III. Tema:
Ang tema ng palabas na ito ay ang mga problemang dumating sa magkakapatid, sa ama na humarap sa mga suliranin sa kanyang mga anak, sa ina na nagbigay ng kanyang pagmamahal ng buong puso sa pinakamahirap na problemang dumating sa kanila. Ang boses ng isang ina na naghahanap ng isang karanasang kakaiba sa pakikisalamuha sa mga tao, pagkakaroon ng silbi! Na gusting maunawaan kung sino sya bilang asawa, bilang ina at bilang isang babaing Pilipino.
IV. Istilo:
Gumamit si Lualhati Bautista ng pagkakaroon ng mga epekto sa mga paniniwalang kanika-nilalang tinahak. Inilarawan ang isang pamilyang tumahak ng kanikanilang kagustuhan at ang mga naging epekto nito sa kanila.

Reaksyon sa Pelikula:
Ang Dekada ’70 ay isang mahusay na adaptasyon sa pelikula ng nobela nitong may parehong titulo. Napanatili ang kaluluwa ng nobela sa pelikula sa kabila ng limitasyon ng pelikula bilang isang audio-visual na medium. Marahil, nakatulong ng malaki ang pagkakaroon ng iisang manunulat lamang. Naging maayos ang takbo ng pelikula na tulad sa nobela nitong nahati sa mga taon ng dekada ’70. Mahusay ang pagkakaganap ng mga pangunahing tauhan (maliban kay Carlos Agassi) na nakapagbigay hininga sa mga tauhang noo’y nababasa lamang. Naibalik ng pelikula ang larawan ng dekada ’70 sa mga eksena nitong nagpapakita ng mga demonstrasyon, protesta at rallies na tunay na nangyari noong panahon na iyon. Ang musika at tunog ay madalas na akma at nagpapaigting sa emosyong nais ipahatid ng pelikula. Naging mahina lamang ang disenyong pamproduksiyon ng pelikula na hindi naging masusi sa make-up, at kasuotan ng mga tauhan sa pawang hindi parating umaangkop sa panahon.
AngDekada ’70 ay isang pelikulang puno ng kahulugan, lalim at pagtatanong sa tunay na kahulugan at kalagayan ng kababaihan sa lipunan. Bagama’t maliwanag na ang manunulat na si Lualhati Bautista ay nagmumula sa feministang pananaw, hindi naging radikal ang kanyang pagtrato sa isyu ng kababaihan. Sa halip mas pinaigting pa ng pelikula ang kahalagan ng papel na ginagampanan ng isang ina sa pamilya. Mamumulat ang mga magulang na makakapanood ng Dekada ’70 sa tunay na papel na kanilang ginagamapanan sa mga anak. Sa kabilang banda’y mas mauunawaan ng mga anak ang kanilang mga magulang na nagsusumikap na maging gabay sa anumang kanilang naisin sa buhay. Sinasabi ng pelikula na walang perpektong magulang o anak sa anumang panahon, ngunit mananatiling matatag ang isang pamilyang may tunay na pagmamahal at pagmamalasakit hindi lamang sa kanilang sarili kundi maging sa ibang tao at sa bayan.
Mensahe o Aral:
Para sa akin, ang mga aral na mapupulot natin ditto sa pelikulang ito ay ang pagmamahal para sa bayan. Makikita natin na ang pagmamahal ni Jules para sa bayan upang makamit ang kalayaan na nararapat sa sambayanan. Hindi dapat ito nililimitahan o kinokontrol ng pamahalaan na ang gusto lang ay kapanyarihan. Tama lang ang ginawa ni Jules dahil ganun din ang ginawa ng ating mga bayani ng ipagtanggol nila ang ating bayan sa mga mananakop. Makikita din natin sa pelikula ang pagkakaroon ng isang matatag ng pamilya. Kahit na si Amanda ay isang palaban na ina at nais niyang mas makilala pa ang kanyang sarili, hindi iyon nakasira sa kanyang pamilya kahit na iba ang idinidikta ng kanyang asawa at ng lipunan noong mga panahon na iyon. Ipinakita sa pelikula na ito ang kahalagahan ng isang ina sa pamilya lalong lalo na sa mga pagkakataong katulad ng na sa pelikula. Lagi nating tatandaan na hinding-hindi ka papabayaan ng iyong ina lalong lalo na tuwing kailangan na kailangan mo siya.

Ang mga tauhan sa “Dekada 70” ay pawang nakapagbigay ng kanilang totong emosyon. Si Amanda na isang inang mapagmahal na may gustong patunayan. Si Julian na boses ng tahanan, mataas ang pride at ayaw pagtrabahuhin si Amanda at di mapigil ang kagustuhan ng kanyang mga anak.. Si Jules na may paninindigan at lakas ng loob na lumaban para sa bayan. Si Isagani na isang mapusok na kabataan. Si Emmanuel na panig kay Jules na lumalaban sa pamamagitan ng pagsulat. Si Jason na isang mabuting anak na pinatay ng mga kalaban ni Jules. Si Bingo isang mapagmahal na bunsong anak. Ang “Dekada 70” ni Lualhati Bautista ay tumutukoy sa kwento ng isang pamilya na nahuli sa kalagitnaan ng kaguluhan sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas. Ang mga anak ng pamilyang ito na tumahak ng ibat-ibang landas. At ang magulang na humarap sa suliranin at di sumuko sa mga problemang dumaan.Tunay na sa isang pamilya masasabing “WALANG IWANAN”

Ang tema ng palabas na ito ay ang mga problemang dumating sa magkakapatid, sa ama na humarap sa mga suliranin sa kanyang mga anak, sa ina na nagbigay ng kanyang pagmamahal ng buong puso sa pinakamahirap na problemang dumating sa kanila. Ang boses ng isang ina na naghahanap ng isang karanasang kakaiba sa pakikisalamuha sa mga tao, pagkakaroon ng silbi! Na gusting maunawaan kung sino sya bilang asawa, bilang ina at bilang isang babaing Pilipino. Ang “Dekada 70” ay isang palabas na tunay na makabayan. Sinasalamin nito ang mga taong tumatahak sa kanilang mga landas na may gusting patunayan. Ang mga tao sa likod nito ay may kakayahang makapagpalabas ng isang buhay na larawan ng isang pamilyang dumanas ng mga problema. Sa mga kasuotan at mga gamit dahil ito ay naganap noong mga 1970 naipakita ang mga kasuotan at mga gamit na talagang pang 1970.

Maganda ang kwento at nagsasabi sa atin na kailangan nating ipaglaban ang ating mga karapatan bilang isang mamamayan sa isang malinis na paraan. Makikita na upang makalaya tayo sa pagkaalipin may mga taong nagsisikap na mapaalis ang mga taong mapang-api gaya ni Jules at ng kaibigan niya na hinangad ang kabutihan ng isang bansa at di lamang sa pansarili. Nakalulungkot nga lang at namatay si Jason na kapatid ni Jules dahil sa paglaban nito sa pamahalaan. Nakaantig damdamin ang mga pinagdaanan ni Amanda bilang isang ina dahil masakit para sa kanya ang mawalan ng anak at maghirap ang mga ito.

Sa kabuuan ng kwento, masasasabing maganda ito sapagkat naipakita at nagbigay ng aral ito sa mga manonood. Bagamat kalunos-lunos ang nangyari sa pamilyang ito ay nakapagsimula silang muli at nagiging makabayan na. Masasabi nating sa kasalukuyan ay maaaring mangyari ito dahil sa gulo ng ating pamahalaan. Kaya maging mapagmasid tayo sa lahat ng oras at gawing mapayapa ang inyong gagawin. Isa lang ang tanong sa kwentong ito “Paano mo palalakihin ang iyong mga anak sa panahon ng katiyakan.

buod:

A Ang mga salitang ito’y tila mga lagusan na naghahatid sa mga aktibista, mamamahayag, pulitiko at iba pang naging bahagi ng mga rali’t demonstrasyon sa mga alaala ng isang di-malilimutang panahon sa ating kasaysayan—ang dekadang 1970.
Ang nobelang Dekada ’70 (Carmelo & Bauermann; 228 pahina) ng premyadong manunulat na si Lualhati Bautista ay natatanging akda sa wikang Filipino hindi lang dahil sa pagkamit nito ng unang gantimpala sa Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature noong 1983 kundi dahil sa mapangahas na inilarawan nito ang isang lipunang noo’y nasa bingit ng pagbabago sa gitna ng papalalang krisis pang-ekonomiya at pampulitikang ligalig bago naganap ang tinaguriang EDSA People Power Revolt ng 1986.
Sa akdang ito, ipinakita ni Amanda Bartolome (tagapagsalaysay ng nobela) ang mga sakit, ligaya, problema, at adhikain niya bilang babae.
Ang mahabang salaysay ay nakasentro sa panggitnang-uring pamilyang Bartolome, at sa kung papaano naapektuhan ng batas militar ang mga tunggalian at trahedyang naganap sa buhay nila. Katuwang ni Amanda ang inhinyerong asawa na si Julian Sr. sa pagpapalaki sa lima nilang anak na lalaki: ang panganay na si Jules na isang kabataang aktibista na sumapi sa rebeldeng New People’s Army (NPA) at pagkatapos ay naging bilanggong pulitikal; si Gani na sa batang edad ay nakabuntis ng babae; si Em na isang manunulat na naghahanap ng pagkakakilanlan sa sarili; si Jason na naging biktima ng salvaging at si Bingo na maaga pa’y nagmamasid na sa mga nangyayari.
Sa Dekada ’70, mababakas ng mambabasa ang tala ng mga aktuwal na kuwento ng panunupil at karahasan ng mga militar sa mga inosenteng sibilyang nasasangkot sa digmaan, mga paglabag sa karapatang pantao, iba’t ibang mukha ng karukhaan at pagsasamantala sa aping mamamayan, at ang walang humpay na paglaban ng mamamayan sa diktadurya sa panahon ng batas militar.
Sa paggamit ng awtor ng first person point of view sa kuwento, kapansin-pansin ang hilig ni Amanda na kausapin ang sarili o mind-chatter hinggil sa papel niya sa asawa’t mga anak at sa mga usaping bumabagabag sa kanya. Sa pagkatuto niya kay Jules, nakakapaghayag siya ng tungkol sa mga nangyayari “dahil di na ako limitado sa mga bagay lang na may kinalaman sa pampabata’t pampaganda, pagdiriwang at mga kaburgisan,” wika nga ni Amanda.
Hindi tipikal na babae si Amanda, bagkus, isang tao na may likas na kamalayan sa mga pangyayaring kinasasangkutan ng mas malawak na bilang ng mamamayan (na unti-unti niyang natutuklasan) at di nagpapasupil sa limitasyon ng litanya ng asawa na, “Well honey, it’s a man’s world.”
Isang mahalagang tauhan sa akda si Jules, isang kabataang namulat ng mga kampanya laban sa tuition fee increase sa paaralan hanggang sa lumao’y piliin niyang lumahok sa sandatahang pakikibakang inilulunsad ng NPA. Ang katangian niya bilang isang rebolusyonaryong nakikibaka para palitan ang sistemang umiiral ay lubhang nakapukaw sa damdamin ni Amanda na minsa’y iginiit ang kalayaang magpasya ng sariling buhay noong sumulat siya sa kapatid ng mga katagang sinipi mula sa tula ng makatang si Kahlil Gibran:
“Ang inyong anak ay hindi n’yo anak, Sila’y mga anak na lalaki’t babae ng buhay! Nagdaan sila sa inyo ngunit hindi inyo, At bagama’t pinalaki n’yo,sila’y walang pananagutan sa inyo…” Sa pagkakaalam ko, ito rin ang madalas sipiin ng mga aktibistang estudyante ngayon sa pakikipag-usap sa mga magulang na hindi nakakaunawa sa kanilang ginagawa!
At gaya ng maraming magulang, hindi naiintindihan ni Amanda ang anak sa mga ginagawa nito. Sagot ni Jules sa ina: panahon na para mamili ang tao. Alinman sa dito ka o do’n…Tutulong ka bang baguhin ang kalagayang ito o magseserbisyo ka rin sa uring mapang-api?
Sa di-inaasahang pagkakatao’y nalasap ng buong pamilya ang dagok ng batas militar nang walang awang pinahirapan at pinatay si Jason ng mga di kilalang tao ilang oras matapos itong palayain ng PC dahil sa hinalang gumagamit ito ng marijuana. Sa kawalan ng pagkakakilanlan sa salarin, walang silang nagawa kundi ang tumangis sa kawalan ng hustisya.
Ngunit kahit pa sumuong sa matitinding trahedya ang pamilyang Bartolome, nananatili pa rin silang buo sa kabila ng pagkakaiba-iba nila ng prinsipyo. Kahit hindi nagkakaintindihan sa mga diskursong pang-intelektuwal, di nawawala ang mahigpit na ugnayang emosyonal. Ika nga ng isang awit, “sa pagkakalayo ay may paglalapit din.”
Ang mga pangyayaring ibinunyag sa Dekada ’70 ay tila nakapagsisilbing panggatong sa lumalakas at umiigting na tinig ng paghihimagsik sa mga unang taon ng sumunod na dekada.
Unang naipakilala sa ‘kin ang Dekada ’70 noong Oktubre 1996 ni G. Christopher Amat, guro sa Komunikasyon sa College of Arts and Sciences ng University of Perpetual Help System-Laguna (UPHSL). Mula noon, hindi ko tinantanan ang pagbabasa ng aklat hanggang sa ito’y matapos ko sa loob lamang ng dalawang linggo.
Para sa mga estudyanteng may progresibong kaisipan, nakaambag ang akda sa pagpapataas ng kanilang pampulitikang kamulatan at pagkamakabayan.
Kahit noong mga taong nagsisimula pa lang na sumulong ang pakikibaka para sa isang malayang konseho at pahayagan ng mga mag-aaral sa UPHSL, itinuring ko na ang nobela bilang nirerekomendang reading material para sa pagmumulat at pag-oorganisa sa masang estudyante. May isa ngang kasamang nagmungkahi pa na gawin itong kurso sa pag-aaral ng organisasyon.
Sa mga panahong gaya ng dekada 70—na dekada ng pagkamulat at pakikibaka—natutunan natin ang aral na ang bawat isa’y bahagi ng mas malawak na lipunan kung saan ang mga kabataan ngayon, na “isang malinaw na mata at tainga at tinig ng kanyang panahon”, ang siyang magpapasya ng kinabukasan ng bayan. Ang luma’y sadyang napapalitan ng bago.
Wika nga ng isang bilanggong pulitikal, “ang payapang pampang ay para lang sa mga pangahas na sasalunga sa alimpuyo ng mga alon sa panahon ng unos.”

i’m tired of living

i just try this blog just to write anything that is happening in my life..this day is an ordinary day..a busy day..i don’t know haha..i’m feel exhausted and down..

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